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Alejado del Teatro Obrero, recibí el encargo de rodar una película conmemorativa de la Revolución de 1905. Se convirtió en la obra más célebre: El acorazado Potemkin (1925). / Foto: nofilmschool.com

CHARLA CON… Serguéi Eisenstein: El acorazado Potemkin es la obra más célebre

El acorazado Potemkin es la obra más célebre de Serguéi Eisenstein quien acaba de cumplir 120 de haber nacido en Riga (Letonia). Su carrera como director lo llevó a Estados Unidos y un tiempo a México, pero regresó a Moscú para continuar el trabajo.    

          

¿Nombre?

Serguéi Mijáilovich Eisenstein

¿Lugar de nacimiento?

Riga, Letonia, 1898

¿Profesión?

Director, montador y teórico cinematográfico.

¿Otros estudios?

Arquitectura y bellas artes antes de enrolarme en las milicias populares que participaron en la Revolución de Octubre.

¿Dónde entró en contacto con el teatro?

En el Ejército Rojo, al trabajar como responsable de decorados y como director e intérprete de pequeños espectáculos para la tropa.

¿Qué lo impulsó a estudiar dirección teatral?

Mi experiencia como director de escena del Teatro Obrero (1920). En la escuela estatal desarrollé una personal concepción del arte dramático basada en la yuxtaposición de imágenes de fuerte contenido emocional.

¿Y su primer contacto con el cine?

Fue el rodaje de un pequeño cortometraje incluido en el montaje de la obra teatral El sabio, que llevaba por título El diario de Glomov.

¿Cuándo rodó su primer trabajo?

Empecé a interesarse por el nuevo medio artístico y rodé el largometraje La huelga, en 1924, con una famosa secuencia en la que utilicé la imagen de ganado sacrificado en el matadero, intercalada con otra de trabajadores fusilados por soldados zaristas.

¿Cuál fue la obra más célebre?

Alejado del Teatro Obrero, recibí el encargo de rodar una película conmemorativa de la Revolución de 1905. Se convirtió en la obra más célebre: El acorazado Potemkin (1925).

¿Qué mostró?

Considerada uno de los mayores logros del cine mudo, la escena del amotinamiento en el barco y la vertiginosa escena de acción de la escalinata, constituyen hitos decisivos en la configuración del lenguaje cinematográfico.

¿Cuál siguió?

Inmerso en la redacción de mis primeros ensayos sobre el montaje de atracción, realicé Octubre (1927), reconstrucción de los decisivos acontecimientos de 1917. Basada en la obra del periodista estadounidense John Reed Los diez días que conmovieron al mundo.

¿Por qué se fue para Estados Unidos?

Comencé a tener serios problemas con la censura soviética, que me llevaron a firmar un contrato con la Paramount y trasladarme a Estados Unidos.

 

¿Allá también tuvo problemas?

Si. No conseguí el permiso de residencia ni poner en marcha ningún proyecto.

¿Qué hizo?

Marché a México, donde rodé el incompleto ¡Que viva México!, filme en el que ensayé montajes aproximativos.

¿Qué fin tuvo la película?

La Metro adquirió en una subasta parte de los negativos, que luego utilizó en ¡Viva Villa!, mientras otra parte pasó al productor Sol Lesser, quien realizó Tormenta sobre México. Mi amiga Mary Seaton utilizó otra parte en la película Tiempo al sol, de influencia decisiva en el posterior desarrollo del cine mexicano.

¿Esas dificultades lo devolvieron a la Unión Soviética?

Pues tras la poca exitosa experiencia como cineasta en el exilio, decidí regresar. De nuevo tropecé con dificultades para desarrollar mi trabajo.

¿Hubo censura?

Sí, claro. El rodaje de El prado de Bezhin, basada en un cuento de Iván Turguénev, fue interrumpido por la censura.

¿Tras esa desilusión en qué se ocupó?

Me dediqué a la redacción de textos teóricos, mientras arreciaban los ataques políticos contra mi obra y mi persona; ataques que no impidieron que rodara Alexander Nevski (1938), la primera película sonora (con música de Serguéi Prokófiev), con la que gané el Premio Stalin.

¿Qué otras obras siguieron?

Con Iván el Terrible (1943) inicié un ambicioso proyecto biográfico en torno a la figura del zar Iván IV de Rusia, cuya estructura original se componía de tres partes. La obra fue interpretada por la burocracia soviética como una denuncia al culto a la personalidad de Stalin. La segunda parte del proyecto, La conjura de los boyardos, estuvo prohibida hasta la muerte del dictador en 1953, cinco años después del fallecimiento del propio director cinematográfico.

¿Cómo le gusta que lo recuerden?

Como extraordinario teórico con obras como Teoría y técnica cinematográfica, La forma en el cine, Reflexiones de un cineasta y La realización cinematográfica, amén de muchos artículos y ensayos.

¿En qué año murió?

En Moscú (URSS), el 11 de febrero de 1948

Texto adaptado de www.biografiasyvidas.com                               

RAFAEL ANTONIO PABÓN

rafaelpabon58@hotmail.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ¿Nombre?

Serguéi Mijáilovich Eisenstein

¿Lugar de nacimiento?

Riga, Letonia, 1898

¿Profesión?

Director, montador y teórico cinematográfico.

¿Otros estudios?

Arquitectura y bellas artes antes de enrolarme en las milicias populares que participaron en la Revolución de Octubre.

¿Dónde entró en contacto con el teatro?

En el Ejército Rojo, al trabajar como responsable de decorados y como director e intérprete de pequeños espectáculos para la tropa.

¿Qué lo impulsó a estudiar dirección teatral?

Mi experiencia como director de escena del Teatro Obrero (1920). En la escuela estatal desarrollé una personal concepción del arte dramático basada en la yuxtaposición de imágenes de fuerte contenido emocional.

¿Y su primer contacto con el cine?

Fue el rodaje de un pequeño cortometraje incluido en el montaje de la obra teatral El sabio, que llevaba por título El diario de Glomov.

¿Cuándo rodó su primer trabajo?

Empecé a interesarse por el nuevo medio artístico y rodé el largometraje La huelga, en 1924, con una famosa secuencia en la que utilicé la imagen de ganado sacrificado en el matadero, intercalada con otra de trabajadores fusilados por soldados zaristas.

¿Cuál fue la obra más célebre?

Alejado del Teatro Obrero, recibí el encargo de rodar una película conmemorativa de la Revolución de 1905. Se convirtió en la obra más célebre: El acorazado Potemkin (1925).

¿Qué mostró?

Considerada uno de los mayores logros del cine mudo, la escena del amotinamiento en el barco y la vertiginosa escena de acción de la escalinata, constituyen hitos decisivos en la configuración del lenguaje cinematográfico.

¿Cuál siguió?

Inmerso en la redacción de mis primeros ensayos sobre el montaje de atracción, realicé Octubre (1927), reconstrucción de los decisivos acontecimientos de 1917. Basada en la obra del periodista estadounidense John Reed Los diez días que conmovieron al mundo.

¿Por qué se fue para Estados Unidos?

Comencé a tener serios problemas con la censura soviética, que me llevaron a firmar un contrato con la Paramount y trasladarme a Estados Unidos.

 

¿Allá también tuvo problemas?

Si. No conseguí el permiso de residencia ni poner en marcha ningún proyecto.

¿Qué hizo?

Marché a México, donde rodé el incompleto ¡Que viva México!, filme en el que ensayé montajes aproximativos.

¿Qué fin tuvo la película?

La Metro adquirió en una subasta parte de los negativos, que luego utilizó en ¡Viva Villa!, mientras otra parte pasó al productor Sol Lesser, quien realizó Tormenta sobre México. Mi amiga Mary Seaton utilizó otra parte en la película Tiempo al sol, de influencia decisiva en el posterior desarrollo del cine mexicano.

¿Esas dificultades lo devolvieron a la Unión Soviética?

Pues tras la poca exitosa experiencia como cineasta en el exilio, decidí regresar. De nuevo tropecé con dificultades para desarrollar mi trabajo.

¿Hubo censura?

Sí, claro. El rodaje de El prado de Bezhin, basada en un cuento de Iván Turguénev, fue interrumpido por la censura.

¿Tras esa desilusión en qué se ocupó?

Me dediqué a la redacción de textos teóricos, mientras arreciaban los ataques políticos contra mi obra y mi persona; ataques que no impidieron que rodara Alexander Nevski (1938), la primera película sonora (con música de Serguéi Prokófiev), con la que gané el Premio Stalin.

¿Qué otras obras siguieron?

Con Iván el Terrible (1943) inicié un ambicioso proyecto biográfico en torno a la figura del zar Iván IV de Rusia, cuya estructura original se componía de tres partes. La obra fue interpretada por la burocracia soviética como una denuncia al culto a la personalidad de Stalin. La segunda parte del proyecto, La conjura de los boyardos, estuvo prohibida hasta la muerte del dictador en 1953, cinco años después del fallecimiento del propio director cinematográfico.

¿Cómo le gusta que lo recuerden?

Como extraordinario teórico con obras como Teoría y técnica cinematográfica, La forma en el cine, Reflexiones de un cineasta y La realización cinematográfica, amén de muchos artículos y ensayos.

¿En qué año murió?

En Moscú (URSS), el 11 de febrero de 1948

Texto adaptado de www.biografiasyvidas.com                               

RAFAEL ANTONIO PABÓN

rafaelpabon58@hotmail.com

Sobre Rafael Antonio Pabón

Rafael Antonio Pabón
Nací en Arboledas (Norte de Santander - Colombia), educado y formado como periodista en la Universidad de la Sabana (Bogotá), gustoso de leer crónicas y amante de escribir este género periodístico, docente en la Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) y seguidor incansable del Cúcuta Deportivo.

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